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History of Israel

The State of Israel is located along the South eastern shore of the Meditteranean & borders Lebanon, Syria, Jordan & Egypt. Important religious sites for Jews, Christians & Muslims make it a disputed region. Over the course of history, among others, the Persians, Romans, Crusaders & eventually the Ottomans held sway.

During World War 1, Britain announced the Balfour Declaration which promised support for the establishment of a Jewish national home. The British mandate over the region was approved by the League of Nations in 1922. As a result, Jewish migration to the region has increased.

The Palestinian population felt threatened by the migration & suppressed by the British. In 1936 fights erupted between Arab & British forces, the latter being supported by Jewish militias. Britain eventually declared to hand over their mandate to the UN which then announced the region’s partition into a Jewish & a Palestinian state. While the Jewish accepted this plan, the Arabs did not.

However, the same day the British forces effectively retreated (15.05.1948), David Ben Gurion proclaimed the State of Israel. Immediately Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq & Lebanon invaded Israel. During the war, Jewish homes were destroyed which caused an Internally Displaced population of approximately 60 000. Before & after the proclamation of the state of Israel, Jewish populations in Arab countries like Algeria, Libya, Iraq, Yemen & Syria were prosecuted & took refuge in Israel.

During the Six- Day War of 1967 Israel defeated Egypt, Syria & Jordan, gaining control over Gaza, the Sinai peninsula, the West Bank & Golan Heights. In 1973, an Arab coalition launched an attack on Israel during the Holy Day of Yom Kippur.

Most Arab states agreed that peace with Israel was conditional that there was a state for the Palestinian people. Nevertheless, in 2020 the Abraham Accords lead to a normalization of relations between Israel & the UAE, Bahrain, Morocco & Sudan. The plight of Palestinians living under Israeli occupation remains unresolved & the permanent human rights violations as well as discriminative policies have caused many critics to denounce Israel as an Apartheid state.

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