Central Asia after the dissolution of the USSR

The dissolution of Soviet Union in 1991 is cited as one of the major reasons for statelessness in South Asia. While a part of the population was able to acquire nationality in the newly constructed/ successor states, one part was unable to do so. For the purpose of this post we define Central Asia as Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan.

The region already concerned with the movement of refugees from Afghanistan, receives refugees from Russia (mostly Chechens) and from China (mostly Uighurs).


Talking about Central Asia as a source, Uzbekistan has usually produced the largest numbers of refugees in recent years. These numbers are allegedly due to the repression following the Andijan protests in 2005.

Estimates say at least 10,654 Central Asians were recognised as refugees as of 2014.


While the countries in the region relatively do have strong refugee policies there has been criticism in their lack of application. Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan are amongst the countries from this region that are signatories to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol.

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